Perkhidmatan Peyuntingan dan Penterjemahan

Jika anda memerlukan perkhidmatan berikut, boleh emelkan pertanyaan kepada saya menerusi emel

1. Perkhidmatan penyuntingan teks (editing) dan bacaan pruf (proofreading):

* Ilmiah
* Separa ilmiah
* Fiksyen (novel, cerita pendek dan lain-lain)

2. Perkhidmatan penulisan (copywriting):

* artikel pendek
* rencana
* laporan tahunan
* brosur
* poster
* iklan

3. Perkhidmatan Penterjemahan:

* Bahasa Inggeris kepada bahasa Melayu
* Bahasa Indonesia kepada bahasa Melayu
* Bahasa Arab kepada bahasa Melayu
* Bahasa Melayu kepada bahasa Arab
* Bahasa Inggeris kepada bahasa Melayu

4. Perkhidmatan perundingan penerbitan dan percetakan:

* buku ilmiah
* buku umum
* novel
* penerbitan lain

Emelkan pertanyaan kepada

What is substantive editing?

Source: Indiamart
In substantive editing (also known as developmental editing and comprehensive editing), the editor considers a document’s concept and intended use, content, organization, design, and style. The purpose is to make the document functional for its readers, not just to make it correct and consistent.

Substantive editing is almost entirely analysis-based, whether at the document level or at the paragraph, sentence, or word level. Decisions require judgement, not just the application of rules, and therefore should be negotiable with the writer.

Contrast this work with copyediting, most of which is rules-based and concerned with grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other mechanics of style and the internal consistency of facts and presentation. Both types of edit are essential; they just focus on different issues. (See also my article on classifying editorial tasks.)

A substantive edit deals with the overall structure of the publication:

~Does it all fit together into a coherent whole?

~Is the order of presentation logical (from the target audience’s point of view)?

~Is all the necessary information included, and unnecessary information deleted?

~Are the retrieval aids (table of contents, internal headings, index) useful? Do they contain terms that are useful to the target audience?

~For online materials (such as CD-ROM or Web sites), are the navigation aids logical and useful in context? Can users easily find the links they want?

Substantive editing may involve restructuring or rewriting part or all of a document.

A related edit is the language edit, which is concerned with how ideas are expressed. For example:

~Sentence complexity and use of active or passive verbs


~Clear, logical development of ideas

~Use of jargon or technical terms appropriate for the intended audience

(Much of the language edit is a subset of work generally considered to be copy editing, but it may also be done as part of substantive editing.)


Copy editor's job

(Source: Cafe Press)

The "five Cs" summarize the copy editor's job: Make the copy clear, correct, concise, complete, and consistent. Copy editors should make it say what it means, and mean what it says.

Typically, copy editing involves correcting spelling, punctuation, grammar, terminology, jargon, and semantics, and ensuring that the text adheres to the publisher's style. They may shorten the text, to improve it or to fit length limits. This is particularly so in periodical publishing, where copy must be cut to fit the layout, and the text changed to ensure there are no 'short lines.'Often, copy editors are also responsible for adding any "display copy," such as headlines, standardized headers and footers, and photo captions. And although proofreading is a distinct task from copy editing, frequently it is one performed by copy editors.

Copy editors are expected to ensure that the text flows, that it is sensible, fair, and accurate, and that any legal problems have been addressed. If a passage is unclear or an assertion seems questionable, the copy editor may ask the writer to clarify it. Sometimes, the copy editor is the only person, other than the writer, to read an entire text before publication, and for this reason newspaper copy editors are considered the publication's last line of defense.The role of the copy editor varies considerably from one publication to another. Some newspaper copy editors select stories from wire service copy; others use desktop publishing software to do design and layout work that once was the province of design and production specialists.

(Source: Wikipedia)

What is copy editing?

Source: Cafe Press

Copy editing (also written as copy-editing or copy editing, and sometimes abbreviated to CE) is the work that an editor does to improve the formatting, style and accuracy of text. Unlike general editing, copy editing often does not involve changing the substance of the text. Copy refers to written or typewritten text for typesetting, printing, or publication. Copy editing is done before proofreading, which is the last step in the editorial cycle.

In the United States and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor, and an organization's highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief, copy desk chief, or news editor. In book publishing in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world that follow UK nomenclature, the term copy editor is used, but in newspaper and magazine publishing, the term is sub-editor (or the un-hyphenated subeditor), commonly shortened to sub. The senior sub-editor on a title is frequently called the chief sub-editor. As the "sub" prefix suggests, copy editors typically have less authority than regular editors.The term copy editor may also be spelled as one word or in hyphenated form (copy edit and copy-edit). The hyphenated form is especially common in the UK; in the U.S. newspaper field, using the two word form is more common.

(Source: Wikipedia)